عنوان مقاله [English]
Today to produce clean fuels instead of non-renewable fossil fuels, It is essential to use the achievements of nanotechnology. One way to generate clean energy is to use hydrogen fuel cells, which generate electricity using oxygen and hydrogen gases in an electrochemical process. One of the common methods of producing these gases is electrolysis of water in which the slow kinetic anodic reaction (oxygen evolution reaction) has led to many researches in the field of improving metal and non-metal electrocatalysts, especially based on carbon nanostructures. The best and most stable electro-catalysts for oxygen evolution reactions are ruthenium and iridium oxides, whose reaction kinetics are rapid. However, low availability of these materials and their high price hinder the commercialization of these electrodes. The purpose of this article is to study for the first time the necessity of oxygen production, types of systems, challenges and mechanisms of its production and to introduce the method of electrolysis of water as the most cost-effective method for oxygen production. Finally, nanostructured electrocatalysts are introduced to improve the slow kinetic oxygen evolution reaction.